Our Publications

Psychological comorbidity: Predictors of residential treatment response among U.S. service members with posttraumatic stress disorder

Author: Kristen H. Walter, Cameron T. McCave, Jessica R. Watrous, Casey B. Kohen, Jessica L. Beltran, Alex Kirk, Justin S. Campbell
April 25 2022

Short description: Residential posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) research in military samples generally shows that in aggregate, PTSD symptoms significantly improve over the course of treatment but can remain at elevated levels following treatment.

Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy

Author: Alexander C. Kline, Cameron T. McCabe, Justin S. Campbell, Kristen H. Walter
January 18 2024

Short description: Even after the most effective posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatments, symptoms often persist. Understanding residual symptoms is particularly relevant in military populations, who may be less responsive to PTSD interventions.

Differences in quality of life scores across injury categories by mental health status among injured U.S. military service members and veterans

Author: Harbertson, J., MacGregor, A.J., McCabe, C.T., Eskridge, S.L., Jurick, S.M., Watrous, J.R., & Galarneau, M.R.
Feb 20, 2023

Short description: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are strong predictors of poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among injured U.S. military service members (SMs).

Associations between health-related behaviors and self-reported cognitive symptoms in US military personnel injured on deployment.

Author: Jurick, S. M., McCabe, C.T., Watrous, J. R., MacGregor, A. J., Walton, S. R., Stewart, I. J., ... & Galarneau, M. R.
Sep 22, 2023

Short description: Health behaviors may be core contributors to cognition and mental health following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Deployment-related concussion and long-term health-related quality of life among US military personnel.

Author: MacGregor, A. J., Casachahua, J. D., Walton, S. R., Harbertson, J., Jurick, S. M., Dougherty, A. L., McCabe, C. T., Watrous, J. R., & Fraser, J. J.
June 23, 2022

Short description: To examine the relationship between deployment-related concussion and long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among injured US military personnel.

The relationship between self-reported physical functioning, mental health, and quality of life in Service members after combat-related amputation.

Author: Eskridge, S.E., Watrous, J.R., McCabe, C.T., Clouser, M.C., & Galarneau, M.R.
Dec 23, 2022

Short description: Service members with amputations experience numerous challenges, yet few studies have examined patient-reported outcomes, including physical functional status, mental-health screening status, and quality of life (QOL) or the relationship between these outcomes.

Brief Report: Pain and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Screening Outcomes Among Military Personnel Injured During Combat Deployment.

Author: MacGregor, A., Jurick, S., McCabe, C., Harbertson, J., Dougherty, A., & Galarneau, M.
Aug 1, 2022

Short description: The post-9/11 U.S. military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan lasted over a decade and yielded the most combat casualties since the Vietnam War.

Transport time after combat-related injury and patient-reported outcomes among US service members.

Author: Hawari, R., McCabe, C.T., Dougherty, A., Eskridge, S.E., Watrous, J.R., … & Galarneau, M.R.
May 1, 2021

Short description: The `golden hour` is a universal paradigm that suggests trauma patients have lower morbidity and mortality when provided with medical care within 1 hour after injury.

Symptom profiles following combat injury and long-term quality of life: A latent class analysis.

Author: MacGregor, A.J., Dougherty, A.L., D’Souza, E.W., McCabe, C.T., Crouch, D.J…& Fraser, J.J.
Sep 30, 2021

Short description: The purpose of this study was to identify symptom profiles among U.S. military personnel within 1 year after combat injury and assess the relationship between the symptom profiles and long-term quality of life (QoL).

Prevalence and correlates of self-reported cognitive difficulties in deployment-injured U.S. military personnel

Author: Sarah M Jurick, Cameron T McCabe, Jessica R Watrous, Lauren E Walker, Ian J Stewart, Michael R Galarneau
Apr 8, 2022

Short description: Cognitive difficulties typically resolve within days to weeks following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI); however, a sizable proportion of individuals continue to report cognitive symptoms months to years later that are often associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression to a greater degree than a history of mTBI.

Mental and physical health, and long-term quality of life among service members injured on deployment

Author: Cameron T. McCabe, Jessica R. Watrous, Susan L. Eskridge & Michael R. Galarneau
Sep 16, 2021

Short description: More than 52,000 casualties have been documented in post-9/11 conflicts. Service members with extremity injuries (EIs) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be at particular risk for long-term deficits in mental and physical health functioning compared with service members with other injuries.

Prospective Evaluation of Health Outcomes in a Nationwide Sample of Aeromedical Evacuation Casualties: Methods From a Pilot Study

Author: Lauren E Walker, Cameron T McCabe, Jessica R Watrous, Eduard Poltavskiy, Jeffrey T Howard, Jud C Janak, Laurie Migliore, Ian J Stewart, Michael R Galarneau
Aug 4, 2021

Short description: To better understand long-term health outcomes after combat injury, a large, prospective observational cohort collecting both subjective and objective health data is needed.

Trajectory of self-rated health after combat-related injury

Author: Andrew J MacGregor, Amber L Dougherty, Cameron T McCabe, Jessica R Watrous
July 5, 2021

Short description: With more service members than ever surviving their wounds, prospective research on factors related to long-term, patient-reported outcomes, including self-rated health (SRH), has increased importance.

Overcoming Adversity and Stress Injury Support (OASIS): Evaluation of Residential Treatment Outcomes for U.S. Service Members with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Author: Kristen H Walter, Casey B Kohen, Cameron T McCabe, Jessica R Watrous, Justin S Campbell
June 3, 2021

Short description: Research on residential posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment has predominantly focused on the U.S. veteran population, whereas limited research exists regarding active duty service members.

Long-Term Outcomes of Service Women Injured on Combat Deployment

Author: Jessica R Watrous, Cameron T McCabe, Amber L Dougherty, Abigail M Yablonsky, Gretchen Jones, Judith Harbertson, Michael R Galarneau
Dec 23, 2020

Short description: Sex- and gender-based health disparities are well established and may be of particular concern for service women. Given that injured service members are at high risk of adverse mental and behavioral health outcomes, it is important to address any such disparities in this group, especially in regard to patient-reported outcomes, as much of the existing research has focused on objective medical records.

Health Behaviors Among Service Members Injured on Deployment: A Study From the Wounded Warrior Recovery Project

Author: Cameron T McCabe, Jessica R Watrous, Michael R Galarneau
Oct 2, 2020

Short description: Service members (SMs) who are injured on deployment are at risk for myriad long-term health problems that may be ancillary to their physical injury, including high rates of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, and poor health behaviors (e.g., problem drinking, cigarette and tobacco use, poor sleep quality, and sedentary lifestyle).

Low back pain, mental health symptoms, and quality of life among injured service members

Author: Jessica R Watrous, Cameron T McCabe, Gretchen Jones, Shawn Farrokhi, Brittney Mazzone, Mary C Clouser, Michael R Galarneau
July 3, 2020

Short description: Pain is a significant public health issue that may be particularly problematic among injured service members who are at high risk of chronic physical and mental health conditions. The goals of this study were to describe the prevalence and types of low back pain (acute vs. recurrent) among service members injured while on combat deployments, and to examine the differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression prevalence and severity, as well as quality of life, for individuals with low back pain compared with those without.

Multimorbidity and quality of life after blast-related injury among US military personnel: a cluster analysis of retrospective data

Author: Andrew J MacGregor, James M Zouris, Jessica R Watrous, Cameron T McCabe, Amber L Dougherty, Michael R Galarneau, John J Fraser
April 28, 2020

Short description: Blast injury emerged as a primary source of morbidity among US military personnel during the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, and led to an array of adverse health outcomes. Multimorbidity, or the presence of two or more medical conditions in an individual, can complicate treatment strategies. To date, there is minimal research on the impact of multimorbidity on long-term patient-reported outcomes. We aimed to define multimorbidity patterns in a population of blast-injured military personnel, and to examine these patterns in relation to long-term quality of life (QOL).

Trauma exposure, mental health, and quality of life among injured service members: Moderating effects of perceived support from friends and family

Author: McCabe CT, Watrous JR, Galarneau MR
Dec 3, 2019

Short description: Poor mental health and quality of life (QOL) are common among service members exposed to trauma and may be more pronounced among those injured on combat deployment. It is vital to identify factors that attenuate these issues. This study examined whether perceived support from friends and family buffer associations between level of trauma exposure, mental health symptoms (i.e., posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression), and QOL.

Prevalence of Low Back Pain and Relationship to Mental Health Symptoms and Quality of Life After a Deployment-related Lower Limb Amputation

Author: Brittney Mazzone, Shawn Farrokhi, Brad D Hendershot, Cameron T McCabe, Jessica R Watrous
Oct 1, 2020

Short description: LBP is a common secondary health condition after amputation with important implications related to function and quality of life. A growing body of evidence suggests that psychosocial factors influence LBP in patients without amputation. However, there is a dearth of information regarding the association of psychosocial factors and LBP after amputation.

Self-reported Functional Status in US Service Members After Combat-Related Amputation

Author: Susan L Eskridge, Mary C Clouser, Cameron T McCabe, Jessica R Watrous, Michael R Galarneau
July 9, 2019

Short description: The objective of this study was to describe the functional status of US service members after combat-related amputation. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from a subsample of the Wounded Warrior Recovery Project, an ongoing, web-based, longitudinal examination of patient-reported outcomes of injured service members.

The Wounded Warrior Recovery Project: A Longitudinal Examination of Patient-Reported Outcomes Among Deployment-Injured Military Personnel (Mil Med.)

Author: Watrous JR, Dougherty AL, McCabe CT, Sack DI, Galarneau MR
Mar 1, 2019

Short description: The survival rate of those injured in combat in overseas contingency operations is higher than in previous conflicts. There is a need to assess the long-term psychosocial and quality of life outcomes of those injured in combat.

Evaluation of Three Postal Invitational Strategies to Increase Survey Response Rates in a Combat-Injured U.S. Military Population: Findings From the Wounded Warrior Recovery Project (Mil Med.)

Author: Sack DI, Woodruff SI, McCabe CT, Galarneau MR, Han PP
Mar 1, 2019

Short description: As part of a large-scale, longitudinal examination of patient-reported outcomes of service members injured on deployment, the present manuscript evaluated the effectiveness of three postal strategies on response rates: (1) mailing a study prenotification postcard, (2) mailing the survey invitation in a larger envelope, and (3) including a small cash preincentive ($2).

Health-related quality of life among US military personnel injured in combat: findings from the Wounded Warrior Recovery Project. (Qual Life Res.)

Author: Woodruff SI, Galarneau MR, McCabe CT, Sack DI, Clouser MC
May 27, 2018

Short description: Little is known about the long-term, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of those wounded in combat during Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn. The present study described the overall HRQOL for a large group of US service members experiencing mild-to-severe combat-related injuries, and assessed the unique contribution of demographics, service- and injury-related characteristics, and mental health factors on long-term HRQOL.

Body-region-specific injuries as predictors of psychosocial outcomes among those injured in combat: Results from the Wounded Warrior Recovery Project (Mil Psychol.)

Author: Woodruff SI, Galarneau MR, McCabe CT, Luu BN, Sack DI, Han PP.
Aug 10, 2017

Short description: Associations between body region injured and psychosocial outcomes may have implications for injury prevention and mitigation strategies. The present study investigated the association of body-region-specific injuries and their association with 3 psychosocial outcomes (i.e., quality of life, QOL; posttraumatic stress disorder, PTSD; and depression) among a large sample of U.S. military service members injured in combat.

Combat amputees' health-related quality of life and psychological outcomes: A brief report from the wounded warrior recovery project

Author: Woodruff SI, Galarneau MR, Sack DI, McCabe CT, Dye JL.
Mar 10, 2017

Short description: This study extends what is known about long-term health-related quality of life (HrQoL) and other psychosocial outcomes (i.e., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) among US military combat amputees serving in Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation New Dawn.

A study protocol for tracking quality of life among U.S. service members wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan: the Wounded Warrior Recovery Project

Author: Susan I Woodruff, Michael R Galarneau, Bethi N Luu, Daniel Sack, Peggy Han
Mar 17, 2014

Short description: There is a need for more work to understand the quality of life (QOL) outcomes of survivors of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom combat injury to improve care and treatment, and prevent poor physical, psychological, and social outcomes. We describe the study design and methods of the Wounded Warrior Recovery Project, a study supported by the Department of Defense that will track close to 10,000 military personnel wounded in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.